Ten Great Religions: An Essay in Comparative Theology

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2005
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Chapter I.

Introduction.—Ethnic and Catholic Religions.

  • § 1. Object of the present Work
  • § 2. Comparative Theology; its Nature, Value, and present Position
  • § 3. Ethnic Religions. Injustice often done to them by Christian Apologists
  • § 4. How Ethnic Religions were regarded by Christ and his Apostles
  • § 5. Comparative Theology will furnish a new Class of Evidences in Support of Christianity
  • § 6. It will show that, while most of the Religions of the World are Ethnic, or the Religions of Races, Christianity is Catholic, or adapted to become the Religion of all Races
  • § 7. It will show that Ethnic Religions are partial, Christianity universal
  • § 8. It will show that Ethnic Religions are arrested, but that Christianity is steadily progressive

Chapter II.

Confucius and the Chinese, or the Prose of Asia.

  • § 1. Peculiarities of Chinese Civilization
  • § 2. Chinese Government based on Education. Civil-Service Examinations
  • § 3. Life and Character of Confucius
  • § 4. Philosophy and subsequent Development of Confucianism
  • § 5. Lao-tse and Tao-ism
  • § 6. Religious Character of the "Kings."
  • § 7. Confucius and Christianity. Character of the Chinese
  • § 8. The Tae-ping Insurrection
  • Note. The Nestorian Inscription in China

Chapter III.

Brahmanism.

  • § 1. Our Knowledge of Brahmanism. Sir William Jones
  • § 2. Difficulty of this Study. The Complexity of the System. The Hindoos have no History. Their Ultra-Spiritualism
  • § 3. Helps from Comparative Philology. The Aryans in Central Asia
  • § 4. The Aryans in India. The Native Races. The Vedic Age. Theology of the Vedas
  • § 5. Second Period. Laws of Manu. The Brahmanic Age
  • § 6. The Three Hindoo Systems of Philosophy,—The Sankhya, Vedanta, and Nyasa
  • § 7. Origin of the Hindoo Triad
  • § 8. The Epics, the Puranas, and Modern Hindoo Worship
  • § 9. Relation of Brahmanism to Christianity

Chapter IV.

Buddhism, or the Protestantism of the East.

  • § 1. Buddhism, in its Forms, resembles Romanism; in its Spirit, Protestantism
  • § 2. Extent of Buddhism. Its Scriptures
  • § 3. Sakya-muni, the Founder of Buddhism
  • § 4. Leading Doctrines of Buddhism
  • § 5. The Spirit of Buddhism Rational and Humane
  • § 6. Buddhism as a Religion
  • § 7. Karma and Nirvana
  • § 8. Good and Evil of Buddhism
  • § 9. Relation of Buddhism to Christianity

Chapter V.

Zoroaster and the Zend Avesta.

  • § 1. Ruins of the Palace of Xerxes at Persepolis
  • § 2. Greek Accounts of Zoroaster. Plutarch's Description of his Religion
  • § 3. Anquetil du Perron and his Discovery of the Zend Avesta
  • § 4. Epoch of Zoroaster. What do we know of him?
  • § 5. Spirit of Zoroaster and of his Religion
  • § 6. Character of the Zend Avesta
  • § 7. Later Development of the System in the Bundehesch
  • § 8. Relation of the Religion of the Zend Avesta to that of the Vedas
  • § 9. Is Monotheism or pure Dualism the Doctrine of the Zend Avesta
  • § 10. Relation of this System to Christianity. The Kingdom of Heaven

Chapter VI.

The Gods of Egypt.

  • § 1. Antiquity and Extent of Egyptian Civilization
  • § 2. Religious Character of the Egyptians. Their Ritual
  • § 3. Theology of Egypt. Sources of our Knowledge concerning it
  • § 4. Central Idea of Egyptian Theology and Religion. Animal Worship
  • § 5. Sources of Egyptian Theology. Age of the Empire and Affinities of the Race
  • § 6. The Three Orders of Gods
  • § 7. Influence upon Judaism and Christianity

Chapter VII.

The Gods Of Greece.

  • § 1. The Land and the Race
  • § 2. Idea and general Character of Greek Religion
  • § 3. The Gods of Greece before Homer
  • § 4. The Gods of the Poets
  • § 5. The Gods of the Artists
  • § 6. The Gods of the Philosophers
  • § 7. Worship of Greece
  • § 8. The Mysteries. Orphism
  • § 9. Relation of Greek Religion to Christianity

Chapter VIII.

The Religion of Rome.

  • § 1. Origin and essential Character of the Religion of Rome
  • § 2. The Gods of Rome
  • § 3. Worship and Ritual
  • § 4. The Decay of the Roman Religion
  • § 5. Relation of the Roman Religion to Christianity

Chapter IX.

The Teutonic and Scandinavian Religion.

  • § 1. The Land and the Race
  • § 2. Idea of the Scandinavian Religion
  • § 3. The Eddas and their Contents
  • § 4. The Gods of Scandinavia
  • § 5. Resemblance of the Scandinavian Mythology to that of Zoroaster
  • § 6. Scandinavian Worship
  • § 7. Social Character, Maritime Discoveries, and Political Institutions of the Scandinavians
  • § 8. Relation of this System to Christianity

Chapter X.

The Jewish Religion.

  • § 1. Palestine, and the Semitic Races
  • § 2. Abraham; or, Judaism as the Family Worship of a Supreme Being
  • § 3. Moses; or, Judaism as the national Worship of a just and holy King
  • § 4. David; or, Judaism as the personal Worship of a Father and Friend
  • § 5. Solomon; or, the Religious Relapse
  • § 6. The Prophets; or, Judaism as a Hope of a spiritual and universal Kingdom of God
  • § 7. Judaism as a Preparation for Christianity

Chapter XI.

Mohammed and Islam.

  • § 1. Recent Works on the Life of Mohammed
  • § 2. The Arabs and Arabia
  • § 3. Early Life of Mohammed, to the Hegira
  • § 4. Change in the Character of Mohammed after the Hegira
  • § 5. Religious Doctrines and Practices among the Mohammedans
  • § 6. The Criticism of Mr. Palgrave on Mohammedan Theology
  • § 7. Mohammedanism a Relapse; the worst Form of Monotheism, and a retarding Element in Civilization
  • Note

Chapter XII.

The Ten Religions and Christianity.

  • § 1. General Results of this Survey
  • § 2. Christianity a Pleroma, or Fulness of Life
  • § 3. Christianity, as a Pleroma, compared with Brahmanism, Confucianism, and Buddhism
  • § 4. Christianity compared with the Avesta and the Eddas. The Duad in all Religions
  • § 5. Christianity and the Religions of Egypt, Greece, and Rome
  • § 6. Christianity in Relation to Judaism and Mohammedanism. The Monad in all Religions
  • § 7. The Fulness of Christianity is derived from the Life of Jesus
  • § 8. Christianity as a Religion of Progress and of universal Unity