Beacon Lights of History, Volume IV

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Ngôn Ngữ Nội Dung Sách
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2003
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***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK BEACON LIGHTS OF HISTORY, VOLUME IV***

      E-text prepared by Juliet Sutherland, Charlie Kirschner, and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team
 
     
 

 LORD'S LECTURES.
     
 

     
 

 BEACON LIGHTS OF HISTORY.

 BY JOHN LORD, LL.D.

 AUTHOR OF "THE OLD ROMAN WORLD," "MODERN EUROPE," ETC., ETC.
     
 

 VOLUME IV.

 IMPERIAL ANTIQUITY.

     
 

     
 

 CONTENTS

     CYRUS THE GREAT.
     ASIATIC SUPREMACY.
     The Persian Empire
 Persia Proper
 Origin of the Persians
 The Religion of the Iranians
 Persian Civilization
 Persian rulers
 Youth and education of Cyrus
 Political Union of Persia and Media
 The Median Empire
 Early Conquests of Cyrus
 The Lydian Empire
 Croesus, King of Lydia
 War between Croesus and Cyrus
 Fate of Croesus
 Conquest of the Ionian Cities
 Conquest of Babylon
 Assyria and Babylonia
 Subsequent conquests of Cyrus
 His kindness to the Jews
 Character of Cyrus
 Cambyses; Darius Hystaspes
 Xerxes
 Fall of the Persian Empire
 Authorities
 

     JULIUS CAESAR.
     IMPERIALISM.
     Caesar an instrument of Providence
 His family and person
 Early manhood; marriage; profession; ambition
 Curule magistrates; the Roman Senate
 Only rich men who control elections ordinarily elected
 Venality of the people
 Caesar borrows money to bribe the people
 Elected Quaestor
 Gains a seat in the Senate
 Second marriage, with a cousin of Pompey
 Caesar made Pontifex Maximus; elected Praetor
 Sent to Spain; military services in Spain
 Elected Consul; his reforms; Leges Juliae
 Opposition of the Aristocracy
 Assigned to the province of Gaul
 His victories over the Gauls and Germans
 Character of the races he subdued
 Amazing difficulties of his campaigns
 Reluctance of the Senate to give him the customary honor
 Jealousy of the nobles; hostility between them and Caesar
 The Aristocracy unfit to govern; their habits and manners
 They call Pompey to their aid
 Neither Pompey nor Caesar will disband his forces; Caesar recalled
 Caesar marches on Home; crosses the Rubicon
 Ultimate ends of Caesar; the civil war
 Pompey's incapacity and indecision; flies to Brundusi
 Caesar defeats Pompey's generals in Spain
 Dictatorship of Caesar
 Battle of Pharsalia
 Death of Pompey in Egypt
 Battles of Thapsus and of Munda
 They result in Caesar's supremacy
 His services as Emperor
 His habits and character
 His assassination,--its consequences
 Causes of Imperialism,--its supposed necessity when Caesar
 arose; public rebuke of Caesar by Cicero
 An historical puzzle
 Authorities
 

     MARCUS AURELIUS.
     THE GLORY OF ROME.
     Remarkable character of Marcus Aurelius
 His parentage and education
 Adopted by Antoninus Pius
 Subdues the barbarians of Germany
 Consequences of the German Wars
 Mistakes of Marcus Aurelius; Commodus
 Persecutions of the Christians
 The "Meditations,"--their sublime Stoicism
 Epictetus,--the influence of his writings
 Style and value of the "Meditations"
 Necessities of the Empire
 Its prosperity under the Antonines; external glories
 Its internal weakness; seeds of ruin
 Gibbon controverted by Marcus Aurelius
 Authorities
 

     CONSTANTINE THE GREAT.
     CHRISTIANITY ENTHRONED.
     Constantine and Diocletian
 Influence of martyrdoms
 Influence of Asceticism,--its fierce protest
 Rise of Constantine
 His civil wars for the supremacy of the Roman world
 The rival Emperors and their fate: Maximinian, Galerius, Maxentius, Maximin, Licinius
 Constantine sole Emperor over the West and East
 Foundation of Constantinople,--its great advantage
 The pomp and ceremony of the imperial Court
 Crimes of Constantine; his virtues
 Conversion of Constantine
 His Christian legislation; edict of Toleration
 Patronage of the Clergy; union of Church and State
 Council of Nice
 Theological discussion
 Doctrine of the Trinity
 Athanasius and Arius
 The Nicene Creed
 Effect of philosophical discussions on theological truths
 Constantine's work; the uniting of Church with State
 Death of Constantine
 His character and services
 Authorities
 

     PAULA.
     WOMAN AS FRIEND.
     Female friendship
 Paganism unfavorable to friendship
 Character of Jewish women
 Great Pagan women
 Paula, her early life
 Her conversion to Christianity
 Her asceticism
 Asceticism the result of circumstances
 Virtues of Paula
 Her illustrious friends
 Saint Jerome and his great attainments
 His friendship with Paula
 His social influence at Rome
 His treatment of women
 Vanity of mere worldly friendship
 ^Esthetic mission of woman
 Elements of permanent friendship
 Necessity of social equality
 Illustrious friendships
 Congenial tastes in friendship
 Necessity of Christian graces
 Sympathy as radiating from the Cross
 Necessity of some common end in friendship
 The extension of monastic life
 Virtues of early monastic life
 Paula and Jerome seek its retreats
 Their residence in Palestine
 Their travels in the East
 Their illustrious visitors
 Peculiarities of their friendship
 Death of Paula
 Her character and fame
 Elevation of woman by friendship
 Authorities
 

     CHRYSOSTOM.
     SACRED ELOQUENCE.
     The power of the Pulpit
 Eloquence always a power
 The superiority of the Christian themes to those of Pagan antiquity
 Sadness of the great Pagan orators
 Cheerfulness of the Christian preachers
 Chrysostom
 Education
 Society of the times
 Chrysostom's conversion, and life in retirement
 Life at Antioch
 Characteristics of his eloquence; his popularity as orator
 His influence
 Shelters Antioch from the wrath of Theodosius
 Power and responsibility of the clergy
 Transferred to Constantinople, as Patriarch of the East
 His sermons, and their effect at Court
 Quarrel with Eutropius
 Envy of Theophilus of Alexandria
 Council of the Oaks; condemnation to exile
 Sustained by the people; recalled
 Wrath of the Empress
 Exile of Chrysostom
 His literary labors in exile
 His more remote exile, and death
 His fame and influence
 Authorities
 

     SAINT AMBROSE.
     EPISCOPAL AUTHORITY.
     Dignity of the Episcopal office in the early Church
 Growth of Episcopal authority,--its causes
 The See of Milan; election of Ambrose as Archbishop
 His early life and character; his great ability
 Change in his life after consecration
 His conservation of the Faith
 Persecution of the Manicheans
 Opposition to the Arians
 His enemies; Faustina
 Quarrel with the Empress
 Establishment of Spiritual Authority
 Opposition to Temporal Power
 Ambrose retires to his cathedral; Ambrosian chant
 Rebellion of Soldiers; triumph of Ambrose
 Sent as Ambassador to Maximus; his intrepidity
 His rebuke of Theodosius; penance of the Emperor
 Fidelity and ability of Ambrose as Bishop
 His private virtues
 His influence on succeeding ages
 Authorities
 

     SAINT AUGUSTINE.
     CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.
     Lofty position of Augustine in the Church
 Parentage and birth
 Education and youthful follies
 Influence of the Manicheans on him
 Teacher of rhetoric
 Visits Rome
 Teaches rhetoric at Milan
 Influence of Ambrose on him
 Conversion; Christian experience
 Retreat to Lake Como
 Death of Monica his mother
 Return to Africa
 Made Bishop of Hippo; his influence as Bishop
 His greatness as a theologian; his vast studies
 Contest with Manicheans,--their character and teachings
 Controversy with the Donatists,--their peculiarities
 Tracts: Unity of the Church and Religious Toleration
 Contest with the Pelagians: Pelagius and Celestius
 Principles of Pelagianism
 Doctrines of Augustine: Grace; Predestination; Sovereignty of God; Servitude of the Will
 Results of the Pelagian controversy
 Other writings of Augustine: "The City of God;" Soliloquies; Sermons
 Death and character
 Eulogists of Augustine
 His posthumous influence
 Authorities
 

     THEODOSIUS THE GREAT.
     LATTER DAYS OF ROME.
     The mission of Theodosius
 General sense of security in the Roman world
 The Romans awake from their delusion
 Incursions of the Goths
 Battle of Adrianople; death of Valens
 Necessity for a great deliverer to arise; Theodosius
 The Goths,--their characteristics and history
 Elevation of Theodosius as Associate Emperor
 He conciliates the Goths, and permits them to settle in the Empire
 Revolt of Maximus against Gratian; death of Gratian
 Theodosius marches against Maximus and subdues him
 Revolt of Arbogastes,--his usurpation
 Victories of Theodosius over all his rivals; the Empire once more united under a single man
 Reforms of Theodosius; his jurisprudence
 Patronage of the clergy and dignity of great ecclesiastics
 Theodosius persecutes the Arians
 Extinguishes Paganism and closes the temples
 Cements the union of Church with State
 Faults and errors of Theodosius; massacre of Thessalonica
 Death of Theodosius
 Division of the Empire between his two sons
 Renewed incursions of the Goths,--Alaric; Stilicho
 Fall of Rome; Genseric and the Vandals
 Second sack of Rome
 Reflections on the Fall of the Western Empire
 Authorities
 

     LEO THE GREAT.
     FOUNDATION OF THE PAPACY.
     Leo the Great,--founder of the Catholic Empire
 General aim of the Catholic Church
 The Church the guardian of spiritual principles
 Theocratic aspirations of the Popes
 Origin of ecclesiastical power; the early Popes
 Primacy of the Bishop of Rome
 Necessity for some higher claim after the fall of Rome
 Early life of Leo
 Elevation to the Papacy; his measures; his writings
 His persecution of the Manicheans
 Conservation of the Faith by Leo
 Intercession with the barbaric kings; Leo's intrepidity
 Desolation of Rome
 Designs and thoughts of Leo
 The jus divinum principle; state of Rome when this principle was advocated
 Its apparent necessity
 The influence of arrogant pretensions on the barbarians
 They are indorsed by the Emperor
 The government of Leo
 The central power of the Papacy
 Unity of the Church
 No rules of government laid down in the Scriptures
 Governments the result of circumstances
 The Papal government the need of the Middle Ages
 The Papacy in its best period
 Greatness of Leo's character and aims
 Fidelity of his early successors, and perversions of later Popes
 Authorities
 

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