Christianity and Islam in Spain

Christianity and Islam in Spain

Christianity and Islam in Spain

Chủ đề: Chuyên ngành khác
Thể loại: Tham khảo - Nghiên Cứu
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Năm xuất bản 2005
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            Invasion of Spain by the barbarians—Its easy conquest—Quarrels among the conquerors—Departure of the Vandals—Visigoths gain the supremacy—Conflict with Eastern Empire—Reduction of the Suevi—All Spain becomes Gothic—Approach of Saracens—Planting of Christianity in Spain—St James—Gospel first preached at Elvira—Irenaeus—Persecutions—Martyrs —Council of Elvira—Council of Nice—Number of Christians—Paganism proscribed—Julian—Arianism—Ulphilas—Conversion of barbarians—Degeneracy of religion—Priscillian—His heresy condemned—Priscillian burnt—Paganism, in Spain—The Gothic Government—Church and State —Power of king—Election of bishops—Arianism of Goths—Ermenegild—Bigotry in Spain—Jews—Influence of clergy—Of the pope ......1-11


            Period of Gothic rule—Degeneracy of Goths—Causes of their fall—Battle of Guadalete—Resistance of towns—Theodomir—Remnant in the North—Mohammedanism—Its rise and progress—Reduction of Africa—Siege of Constantinople—Attacks on Spain—Tarif—Arabs in Gaul—Anarchy in Spain—Christians in the North—Clemency of the Arabs—Treaties—Conquest easy—Rhapsodies of Isidore—Slaves—Jews—Impartiality of Arab governors—Khalifate established—Feuds of Arabs and Berbers—Revolt of Berbers—Syrian Arabs—Settlement of Arabs—Effect of Berber wars ......11-25


            Landing of Abdurrahman—Khalifate of Cordova—Condition of Christians —Proselytism—Apostates—Arabs and Spaniards—Evidence of Christian writers—Condition of the people—Serfs—No revolts—No solidarity with the Christians in the North—Relations wkh Arabs at first friendly—The jehad in Spain—Martyrs in battle—Fabulous martyr—Anambad, first martyr—Peter of Najuma—No other till 824—John and Adulphus —Causes of Martyrdoms—Amalgamation of the two peoples—Intermarriage —Children of mixed parents—Nunilo and Alodia—Mania for martyrdom—Voluntary martyrdoms—The Spanish confessors—Threatened deterioration in the Church—Christianity infected with Moslem customs —Religious fervour in convents—Fanaticism, of monks—Fresh martyrs —Perfectus, John, Isaac—Arab inability to understand the motives of these martyrs—Causes of fanaticism—Sanctus—Peter—Walabonsus, etc ......25-40


            Flora and Maria—Their adventures—Trial—Meet Eulogius in prison—Their execution—Other martyrs—Hidden Christians—Aurelius, Sabigotha, etc —Plan for procuring martyrdom—Miracle in prison—Execution—Other martyrs—Death of Abdurrahman II.—Mohammed I.—Martyrs—Prodigy upon their execution—Outrage in a mosque—Punishment of offenders—Apprehension of king—Meditates a persecution—Even a massacre—Series of martyrdoms—Cloister of Tabanos suppressed—Columba, Pomposa—Abundius a true martyr—Others martyred—Censor of Cordova—Persecution and death of Ruderic—Eulogius—Parentage and antecedents—Opposes amalgamation of Arabs and Christians—Encourages learning of Latin—Imprisonment—Elected Bishop of Toledo—Again imprisoned—Trial—Execution—His relics ......40-54


            Doubtful martyrs—No persecution raging—The Muzarabes—Churches in Cordova—Arab description of a church—Monasteries outside the city—Voluntary martyrs, chiefly from Cordova—No ferment at Elvira—Enthusiasts not a large body—Their leaders—The moderate party—Objections against the martyrs—Voluntary martyrdoms forbidden by the Church—Answer of apologists—Evidence as to persecution—Apologists inconsistent—Eulogius and Alvar—Reviling of Mohammed—Martyrs worked no miracles—Defence of apologists illogical—Martyrs put to death not by idolaters—Death without torture—Their bodies corrupted—Moslem taunts—Effect of martyrdoms on the Moslems—Prohibition of relics—Traffic in relics—They work miracles—Relics taken from Spain to France —Expedition of monks for that purpose—St Vincent's body—Relics of George, Aurelius, etc., carried off—Return to France—Measures of the moderate party—Of the Moslems—Reccafredus—supported by the majority of Christians—Fanatics coerced—Anathematized—Action of king—Suspects political movement—Revolt at Toledo—Grand Council—Measures against zealots—Meditated persecution—The extreme party broken up—Apostasies—Reason of these—The exceptor Gomez—The decision of the Council—Cessation of martyrdoms ......54-73


            National party—Revolt of Spaniards against Arabs—Martyrs in battle— Martyrdoms under Abdurrahman III.—Pelagius—Argentea—The monks of Cardena—Eugenia—No real persecution under the Great Khalif— General view of Christian Church in Spain under Abdurrahman II.— Civil position of Christians—Councils—Neglect of Latin—Arabic compulsory —Protests of Alvar, etc.—Latin forgotten—Cultivation of Moslem learning—Moslem theology—Church abuses—Simony—Breach of canons —Unworthy priests—Rival pastors—Heresy in the Church—Depravity of clergy—Their apostasy—Their deposition—Muzarabes—Free Christians in the North—The Church in the North—Its dangerous position—Cut short by Almanzor—Clergy oppress Christians—Count of Cordova—Ill-treats the Christians—Councils—Held by Elipandus—By Reccafredus—By Hostegesis—Jews and Moslems summoned—Council held by Basilius ...... 73-86


            Khalifate saved by Abdurrahman III.—Commander of the Faithful—His character—Embassy to the Emperor of the West—Return embassy—John of Gorz—Detained in Cordova—Messengers from the king—Cause of detention—John of Gorz and John of Cordova—The king's threats—Dead-lock —Fresh embassy to Otho—A second embassy from Otho—First embassy received—Condescension of Sultan—Tolerance of Moslems— Mohammed's injunctions—Tolerant Mohammedan rulers elsewhere— Alcuin—Arnold of Citeaux—Bernard, Archbishop of Toledo—Christians tolerated, even encouraged—"Officer of protection"—Christian courts— Censors—Sclavonian bodyguard—Arab pride of race—Partial Amalgamation of races—Alliances between Arabs and Christians—Intermarriages— Offspring of these—The maiden tribute—Evidence in its favour—No myth—Conversions—Mohammedan view of apostasy ...... 86-98


            Arab factions—Berbers—Spaniards—Muwallads—Despised by Arabs—Revolts at Cordova, &c.—Intrigues with the Franks—Letter of Louis—Revolt of Toledo—Christians and Muwallads make common cause—Omar —Begins life as a bandit—Captured—Escapes—Heads the national party— Becomes a Christian—Utterly defeated—Muwallads desert him—Death of Omar—Stronghold of Bobastro captured—End of rebellion—Christians under Abdurrahman III.—Almanzor—Anarchy—End of Khalifate—Knowledge of Christianity and Mohammedanism slight among those of the opposite creed—Christian writers on Islam—Eulogius—Mohammed's relation to Christianity—Alvar—Unfair to Mohammed—His ignorance of the Koran —Prophecy of Daniel.—Moslem knowledge of Christianity—Mistaken idea of the Trinity—Ibn Hazm—St James of Compostella ...... 98-114


            Traces of amalgamation of religions—Instances elsewhere—Essential differences of Islam and Christianity—Compromise attempted—Influence of Islam, over Christianity—Innovating spirit in Spain—Heresy in Septimania—Its possible connection with Mohammedanism—Migetian heresy as to the Trinity—Its approach to the Mohammedan doctrine—Other similar heresies—Adoptionism—Our knowledge of it—Whence derived—Connection with Islam—Its author or authors—Probably Elipandus—His opponents—His character—Independence—Jealousy of the Free Church in the North—Nature of Adoptionism—Not a revival of Nestorianism—Origin of the name—Arose from inadvertence—Felix—His arguments—Alcuin's answers—Christ, the Son of God by adoption—Unity of Persons acknowledged—First mention of theory—Adrian—-Extension of heresy—Its opponents—Felix amenable to Church discipline—Elipandus under Arab rule—Councils—Of Narbonne—Friuli—Ratisbon—Felix abjures his heresy—Alcuin—Council of Frankfort—Heresy anathematized —Councils of Rome and Aix—Felix again recants—Alcuin's book—Elipandus and Felix die in their error—Summary of evidence connecting adoptionism with Mohammedanism—Heresy of Claudius—-Iconoclasm Libri Carolini—Claudius, bishop of Turin—Crusade against image-worship—His opponents—Arguments—Independence—Summoned before a Council—Refuses to attend—Albigensian heresy ...... 114-136


            Mutual influences of the two creeds—Socially and intellectually—"No monks in Islam"—Faquirs—The conventual system adopted by the Arabs—Arab account of a convent—Moslem nuns—Islam Christianised—-Christian spirit in Mohammedanism—Arab magnanimity—Moslem miracles—-like Christian ones—Enlightened Moslems—Philosophy—Freethinkers—Theologians—Almanzor—Moslem sceptics—Averroes—The faquis or theologians—Sect of Malik ibn Ans—Power of theologians—-Decay of Moslem customs—Wine drunk—Music cultivated—Silk worn—Statues set up—Turning towards Mecca—Eating of sow's flesh—Enfranchisement of Moslem women—Love—Distinguished women—-Women in mosques—At tournaments—Arab love-poem—Treatise on love ...... 136-148


            Influence of Mohammedanism—Circumcision of Christians—-Even of a bishop —Customs retained for contrast—Cleanliness rejected as peculiar to Moslems— Celibacy of clergy—Chivalry—Origin—Derived from Arabs— Favoured by state of Spain—Spain the cradle of chivalry—Arab chivalry —Qualifications for a knight—Rules of knighthood—The Cid—Almanzor—His generosity—Justice—Moslem military orders—Holy wars—Christianity Mohammedanized—The "Apotheosis of chivalry"—Chivalry a sort of religion—Social compromise—Culminates in the Crusades ..... 149-156



            Jews persecuted by Goths—Help the Saracens—Numbers—Jews in France—Illtreated—Accusations against—Eleazar, an apostate—Incites the Spanish Moslems against the Christians—Intellectual development of Jews in Spain—Come to be disliked by Arabs—Jews and the Messiah—Judaism deteriorated—Contact with Islam—Civil position—Jews at Toledo—Christian persecution of Jews—Massacre—Expulsion—Conversion—The "Mala Sangre"—The Inquisition ...... 156-161


            Spain and the papal power—Early independence—Early importance of Spanish Church—Arian Spain—Orthodox Spain—Increase of papal influence—Independent spirit of king and clergy—Quarrel with the pope—Arab invasion—Papal authority in the North—Crusade preached—Intervention of the pope—St James' relics—Claudius of Turin—Rejection of pope's claims—Increase of pope's power in Spain—Appealed to against Muzarabes—Errors of Migetius—Keeping of Easter—Eating of pork—Intermarriage with Jews and Moslems—Fasting on Sundays—Elipandus withstands the papal claims—Upholds intercourse with Arabs—Rejects papal supremacy—Advance of Christians in the North—Extension of power of the pope—Gothic liturgy suspected—Suppressed—Authority of pope over king—Appeals from the king to the pope—Rupture with the Roman See—Resistance of sovereign and barons to the pope—Inquisition established—Victims—Moriscoes persecuted—Reformation stamped out—Subjection of Spanish Church ...... 161-173