Beacon Lights of History, Volume III

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Ngôn Ngữ Nội Dung Sách
Nhà xuất bản
Năm xuất bản
2003
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***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK BEACON LIGHTS OF HISTORY, VOLUME III***

     E-text prepared by Juliet Sutherland, Charlie Kirschner,
 and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team
 
     
 

     
 

 LORD'S LECTURES

     
 

     
 

 BEACON LIGHTS OF HISTORY.

 BY JOHN LORD, LL.D.

 AUTHOR OF "THE OLD ROMAN WORLD," "MODERN EUROPE," ETC., ETC.
     
 

 VOLUME III.

 ANCIENT ACHIEVEMENTS.

     
 

     
 

 CONTENTS.

     GOVERNMENTS AND LAWS.
     GREEK AND ROMAN JURISPRUDENCE.
     Governments and laws
 Oriental laws
 Priestly jurisprudence
 The laws of Lycurgus
 The laws of Solon
 Cleisthenes
 The Ecclesia at Athens
 Struggle between patricians and plebeians at Rome
 Tribunes of the people
 Roman citizens
 The Roman senate
 The Roman constitution
 Imperial power
 The Twelve Tables
 Roman lawyers
 Jurisprudence under emperors
 Labeo
 Capito
 Gaius
 Paulus
 Ulpian
 Justinian
 Tribonian
 Code, Pandects, and Institutes
 Roman citizenship
 Laws pertaining to marriage
 Extent of paternal power
 Transfer of property
 Contracts
 The courts
 Crimes
 Fines
 Penal statutes
 Personal rights
 Slavery
 Security of property
 Authorities
 

     THE FINE ARTS.
     ARCHITECTURE, SCULPTURE, PAINTING.
     Early architecture
 Egyptian monuments
 The Temple of Karnak
 The pyramids
 Babylonian architecture
 Indian architecture
 Greek architecture
 The Doric order
 The Parthenon
 The Ionic order
 The Corinthian order
 Roman architecture
 The arch
 Vitruvius
 Greek sculpture
 Phidias
 Statue of Zeus
 Praxiteles
 Scopas
 Lysippus
 Roman sculpture
 Greek painters
 Polygnotus
 Apollodorus
 Zeuxis
 Parrhasius
 Apelles
 The decline of art
 Authorities
 

     ANCIENT SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE.
     ASTRONOMY, GEOGRAPHY, ETC.
     Ancient astronomy
 Chaldaean astronomers
 Egyptian astronomy
 The Greek astronomers
 Thales
 Anaximenes
 Aristarchus
 Archimedes
 Hipparchus
 Ptolemy
 The Roman astronomers
 Geometry
 Euclid
 Empirical science
 Hippocrates
 Galen
 Physical science
 Geography
 Pliny
 Eratosthenes
 Authorities
 

     MATERIAL LIFE OF THE ANCIENTS.

     MECHANICAL AND USEFUL ARTS.
     Mechanical arts
 Material life in Egypt
 Domestic utensils
 Houses and furniture
 Entertainments
 Glass manufacture
 Linen fabrics
 Paper manufacture
 Leather and tanners
 Carpenters and boat-builders
 Agriculture
 Field sports
 Ornaments of dress
 Greek arts
 Roman luxuries
 Material wonders
 Great cities
 Commerce
 Roman roads
 Ancient Rome
 Architectural wonders
 Roman monuments
 Roman spectacles
 Gladiatorial shows
 Roman triumphs
 Authorities
 

     THE MILITARY ART.
     WEAPONS, ENGINES, DISCIPLINE.
     The tendency to violence and war
 Early wars
 Progress in the art of war
 Sesostris
 Egyptian armies
 Military weapons
 Chariots of war
 Persian armies, Cyrus
 Greek warfare
 Spartan phalanx
 Alexander the Great
 Roman armies
 Hardships of Roman soldiers
 Military discipline
 The Roman legion
 Importance of the infantry
 The cavalry
 Military engines
 Ancient fortifications
 Military officers
 The praetorian cohort
 Roman camps
 Consolidation of Roman power
 Authorities
 

     CICERO.
     ROMAN LITERATURE.
     Condition of Roman society when Cicero was born
 His education and precocity
 He adopts the profession of the law
 His popularity as an orator
 Elected Quaestor; his Aedileship
 Prosecution of Verres
 His letters to Atticus; his vanity
 His Praetorship; declines a province
 His Consulship; conspiracy of Catiline
 Banishment of Cicero: his weakness; his recall
 His law practice; his eloquence
 His provincial government
 His return to Rome
 His fears in view of the rivalry between Caesar and Pompey
 Sides with Pompey
 Death of Tullia and divorce of Terentia
 Second marriage of Cicero
 Literary labors: his philosophical writings
 His detestation of Imperialism
 His philippics against Antony
 His proscription, flight, and death
 His great services
 Character of his eloquence
 His artistic excellence of style
 His learning and attainments; his character
 His immortal legacy
 Authorities
 

     CLEOPATRA.
     THE WOMAN OF PAGANISM.
     Why Cleopatra represents the woman of Paganism
 Glory of Ancient Rome
 Paganism recognizes the body rather than the soul
 Ancestors of Cleopatra
 The wonders of Alexandria
 Cleopatra of Greek origin
 The mysteries of Ancient Egypt
 Early beauty and accomplishments of Cleopatra
 Her attractions to Caesar
 Her residence in Rome
 Her first acquaintance with Antony
 The style of her beauty
 Her character
 Character of Antony
 Antony and Cleopatra in Cilicia
 Magnificence of Cleopatra
 Infatuation of Antony
 Motives of Cleopatra
 Antony's gifts to Cleopatra
 Indignation of the Romans
 Antony gives up his Parthian expedition
 Returns to Alexandria
 Contest with Octavius
 Battle of Actium
 Wisdom of Octavius
 Death of Antony
 Subsequent conduct of Cleopatra
 Nature of her love for Antony
 Immense sacrifices of Antony
 Tragic fate of Cleopatra
 Frequency of suicide at Rome
 Immorality no bar to social position in Greece and Rome
 Dulness of home in Pagan antiquity
 Drudgeries of women
 Influence of women on men
 Paganism never recognized the equality of women with men
 It denied to them education
 Consequent degradation of women
 Paganism without religious consolation
 Did not recognize the value of the soul
 And thus took no cognizance of the higher aspirations of man
 The revenge of woman under degradation
 Women, under Paganism, took no interest in what elevates society
 Men, therefore, fled to public amusements
 No true society under Paganism
 Society only created by Christianity
 

     PAGAN SOCIETY.

     GLORY AND SHAME.
     Glories of the ancient civilization
 A splendid external deception
 Moral evils
 Imperial despotism
 Prostration of liberties
 Some good emperors
 Disproportionate fortunes
 Luxurious living
 General extravagance
 Pride and insolence of the aristocracy
 Gibbon's description of the nobles
 The plebeian class
 Hopelessness and disgrace of poverty
 Popular superstitions
 The slaves
 The curse of slavery
 Degradation of the female sex
 Bitter satires of Juvenal
 Games and festivals
 Gladiatorial shows
 General abandonment to pleasure
 The baths
 General craze for money-making
 Universal corruption
 Saint Paul's estimate of Roman vices
 Decline and ruin a logical necessity
 The Sibylline prophecy
 Authorities
 

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