Beacon Lights of History, Volume XI

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Ngôn Ngữ Nội Dung Sách
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2004
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***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK BEACON LIGHTS OF HISTORY, VOLUME XI***

     E-text prepared by Juliet Sutherland, Charlie Kirschner,
 and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team
 
     
 

     
 

 LORD'S LECTURES

     
 

     
 

 BEACON LIGHTS OF HISTORY.

 BY JOHN LORD, LL.D.

 AUTHOR OF "THE OLD ROMAN WORLD," "MODERN EUROPE," ETC., ETC.
     
 

 VOLUME XI.

 AMERICAN FOUNDERS.

     
 

     
 

 PUBLISHERS' PREFACE.

     Dr. Lord's volume on "American Statesmen" was written some years after the issue of his volume on "Warriors and Statesmen," which was Volume IV of his original series of five volumes. The wide popular acceptance of the five volumes encouraged him to extend the series by including, and rewriting for the purpose, others of his great range of lectures. The volume called "Warriors and Statesmen" (now otherwise distributed) included a number of lectures which in this new edition have been arranged in more natural grouping. Among them were the lectures on Hamilton and Webster. It has been deemed wise to bring these into closer relation with their contemporaries, and thus Hamilton is now placed in this volume, among the other "American Founders," and Webster in the volume on "American Leaders."
     Of the "Founders" there is one of whom Dr. Lord did not treat, yet whose services--especially in the popular confirmation of the Constitution by the various States, and notably in its fundamental interpretation by the United States Supreme Court--rank as vitally important. John Marshall, as Chief Justice of that Court, raised it to a lofty height in the judicial world, and by his various decisions established the Constitution in its unique position as applicable to all manner of political and commercial questions--the world's marvel of combined firmness and elasticity. To quote Winthrop, as cited by Dr. Lord, it is "like one of those rocking-stones reared by the Druids, which the finger of a child may vibrate to its centre, yet which the might of an army cannot move from its place."
     So important was Marshall's work, and so potent is the influence of the United States Supreme Court, that no apology is needed for introducing into this volume on our "Founders" a chapter dealing with that great theme by Professor John Bassett Moore, recently Assistant Secretary of State; later, Counsel for the Peace Commission at Paris; and now occupying the chair of International Law and Diplomacy in the School of Political Science, Columbia University, New York City.
     NEW YORK, September, 1902.
     
 

     
 

 CONTENTS.

     PRELIMINARY CHAPTER.
     THE AMERICAN IDEA.
     Basis of American institutions
 Their origin
 The Declaration of Independence
 Duties rather than rights enjoined in Hebrew Scriptures
 Roman laws in reference to rights
 Rousseau and the "Contrat Social"
 Calvinism and liberty
 Holland and the Puritans
 The English Constitution
 The Anglo-Saxon Laws
 The Guild system
 Teutonic passion for personal independence
 English Puritans
 Puritan settlers in New England
 Puritans and Dutch settlers compared
 Traits of the Pilgrim Fathers
 New England town-meetings
 Love of learning among the Puritan colonists
 Confederation of towns
 Colonial governors
 Self-government; use of fire-arms
 Parish ministers
 Religious freedom
 Growth of the colonies
 The conquest of Canada
 Colonial discontents
 Desire for political independence
 Oppressive English legislation
 Denial of the right of taxation
 James Otis and Samuel Adams
 The Stamp Act
 Boston Port Bill
 British troops in Boston
 The Battle of Lexington
 Liberty under law
 

     BENJAMIN FRANKLIN.
     DIPLOMACY.
     Birth of Franklin
 His early days
 Leaves the printer's trade
 Goes to Philadelphia
 Visit to England
 Returns to Philadelphia
 Prints a newspaper
 Establishes the "Junto"
 Marries Deborah Reid
 Establishes a library
 "Poor Richard"
 Clerk of the General Assembly
 Business prosperity
 Retirement from business
 Scientific investigations
 Founds the University of Pennsylvania
 Scientific inventions
 Franklin's materialism
 Appointed postmaster-general
 The Penns
 The Quakers
 Franklin sent as colonial agent to London
 Difficulties and annoyances
 Acquaintances and friends
 Returns to America
 Elected member of the Assembly
 English taxation of the colonies
 English coercion
 Franklin again sent to England
 At the bar of the House of Commons
 Repeal of the Stamp Act
 Franklin appointed agent for Massachusetts
 The Hutchinson letters
 Franklin a member of the Continental Congress
 Sent as envoy to France
 His tact and wisdom
 Unbounded popularity in France
 Embarrassments in raising money
 The recall of Silas Deane
 Franklin's useful career as diplomatist
 Associated with John Jay and John Adams
 The treaty of peace
 Franklin returns to America
 His bodily infirmities
 Happy domestic life
 Chosen member of the Constitutional Convention
 Sickness; death; services
 Deeds and fame
 

     GEORGE WASHINGTON.
     THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION.
     Washington's origin and family
 His early life
 Personal traits
 Friendship with Lord Fairfax
 Washington as surveyor
 Aide to General Braddock
 Member of the House of Burgesses
 Marriage, and life at Mount Vernon
 Member of the Continental Congress
 General-in-chief of the American armies
 His peculiarities as general
 At Cambridge
 Organization of the army
 Defence of Boston
 British evacuation of Boston
 Washington in New York
 Retreat from New York
 In New Jersey
 Forlorn condition of the army
 Arrival at the Delaware
 Fabian Policy
 The battle of Trenton
 Intrenchment at Morristown
 Expulsion of the British from New Jersey
 The gloomy winter of 1777
 Washington defends Philadelphia
 Battle of Germantown
 Surrender of Burgoyne
 Intrigues of Gates
 Baron Steuben
 Winter at Valley Forge
 British evacuation of Philadelphia
 Battle of Monmouth
 Washington at White Plains
 Benedict Arnold
 Military operations at the South
 General Greene
 Lord Cornwallis
 His surrender at Yorktown
 Close of the war
 Washington at Mount Vernon
 Elected president
 Alexander Hamilton
 John Jay
 Washington as president
 Establishment of United States Bank
 Rivalries and dissensions between Hamilton and Jefferson
 French intrigues
 Jay treaty
 Citizen Genet
 Washington's administrations
 Retirement of Washington
 Death, character, and services
 

     ALEXANDER HAMILTON.
     AMERICAN CONSTITUTION.
     Hamilton's youth
 Education
 Precocity of intellect
 State of political parties on the breaking out of the Revolutionary War
 Their principles
 Their great men
 Hamilton leaves college for the army
 Selected by Washington as his aide-de-camp at the age of nineteen
 His early services to Washington
 Suggestions to members of Congress
 Trials and difficulties of the patriots
 Demoralization of the country
 Hamilton in active military service
 Leaves the army; marries; studies law
 Opening of his legal career
 His peculiarities as a lawyer
 Contrasted with Aaron Burr
 Hamilton enters political life
 Sees the necessity of a constitution
 Convention at Annapolis
 Convention at Philadelphia
 The remarkable statesmen assembled
 Discussion of the Convention
 Great questions at issue
 Constitution framed
 Influence of Hamilton in its formation
 Its ratification by the States
 "The Federalist"
 Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury
 His transcendent financial genius
 Restores the national credit
 His various political services as statesman
 The father of American industry
 Protection
 Federalists and Republicans
 Hamilton's political influence after his retirement
 Resumes the law
 His quarrel with Burr
 His duel
 His death
 Burr's character and crime
 Hamilton's services
 His lasting influence
 

     JOHN ADAMS.
     CONSTRUCTIVE STATESMANSHIP.
     The Adams family
 Youth and education of John Adams
 New England in the eighteenth century
 Adams as orator
 As lawyer
 The Stamp Act
 The "Boston Massacre"
 Effects of English taxation
 Destruction of tea at Boston
 Adams sent to Congress
 His efforts to secure national independence
 Criticisms of the Congress
 Battles of Lexington and Concord
 Adams moves Washington's appointment as general-in-chief
 Sent to France
 Adams as diplomatist
 His jealousy of Franklin
 Adams in England
 As vice-president
 Aristocratic sympathies
 As president
 Formation of political parties
 The Federalists; the Republicans
 Adams compared with Jefferson
 Discontent of Adams
 Strained relations between France and the United States
 The Alien and Sedition laws
 Decline of the Federal party
 Adams's tenacity of office
 His services to the State
 Adams in retirement
 

     THOMAS JEFFERSON.
     POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY.
     Thomas Jefferson
 Birth and early education
 Law studies
 Liberal principles
 Practises law
 Successful, but no orator
 Enters the House of Burgesses
 Marries a rich widow
 Builds "Monticello"
 Member of the Continental Congress
 Drafts the Declaration of Independence
 Enters the State Legislature
 Governor of Virginia
 Appointed minister to France
 Hails the French Revolution
 Services as a diplomatist
 Secretary of state
 Rivalry with Hamilton
 Love of peace
 Founds the Democratic party
 Contrasted with Hamilton
 Becomes vice-president
 Inaugurated as president
 Policy as president
 The purchase of Louisiana
 Aaron Burr
 His brilliant career and treasonable schemes
 Arrest and trial
 Subsequent reverses
 The Non-importation Act
 Strained relations between France and the United States
 English aggressions
 The peace policy of Jefferson
 The embargo
 Triumph of the Democratic party
 Results of universal suffrage
 Private life of Jefferson
 Retirement to Monticello
 Vast correspondence; hospitality
 Fame as a writer
 Friend of religious liberty and popular education
 Founds the University of Virginia
 His great services
 

     JOHN MARSHALL.
     BY JOHN BASSETT MOORE.
     THE SUPREME COURT.
 
 The States of the American Union after the Revolution,
           for a time a loose confederation, retaining for the most
           part powers of independent governments.
 The Constitution (1787-89) sought to remedy this and other defects.
 One Supreme Court created, in which was vested the judicial power of the United States.
 John Marshall, in order the fourth Chief Justice (1801-35), takes
           pre-eminent part in the development of the judicial power.
 Earns the title of "Expounder of the Constitution".
 Birth (1755) and parentage.
 His active service in the Revolutionary War.
 Admitted to the bar (1780) and begins practice (1781).
 A member of the Virginia Legislature.
 Supporter of Washington's administrations, and leader of Federal party.
 United States Envoy to France (1797-98).
 Member of Congress from Virginia (1799-1800), and supporter of President Adams's administration.
 Secretary of State in Adams's Cabinet (1800-01).
 Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
 His many important decisions on constitutional questions.
 Maintains power of the Supreme Court to decide upon the constitutionality of Acts of Congress.
 Asserts power of Federal Government to incorporate banks, with freedom from State control and taxation.
 Maintains also its power to regulate commerce, free from State hindrance or obstruction.
 His constitutional opinion, authoritative and unshaken.
 His decisions on questions of International Law.
 Decides the status of a captured American vessel visiting her native port as a foreign man-of-war.
 Sound decision respecting prize cases.
 His views and rulings respecting confiscation of persons and property in time of war.
 Personal characteristics and legal acumen.
 Weight and influence of the Supreme Court of the United States.
 

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