The Psychology of Management

Tác giả
Chủ đề
Ngôn Ngữ Nội Dung Sách
Nhà xuất bản
Năm xuất bản
2005
Định dạng sách
Nhà xuất bản sách tiếp cận
Sơ lược sách

CHAPTER I

DESCRIPTION AND GENERAL OUTLINE OF THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT        

Definition of Psychology of Management — Importance of the Subject — Purpose of this Book — Definition of Management — The Three Types of Management — Possible Psychological Studies of Management — Plan of Psychological Study Here Used — Underlying Ideas or Divisions of Scientific Management — Outline of Method of Investigation — Conclusions to be Reached.

CHAPTER II

INDIVIDUALITY       

Definition of Individuality — Place of Individuality in Psychology — Individuality Under Traditional Management — Individuality Under Transitory Management — Individuality Under Scientific Management — Selection of Workers — Separating Output — Recording Output Separately — Individual Tasks — Individual Instruction Cards — Individual Teaching — Individual Incentives — Individual Welfare — Summary: (a) Effect of Individuality upon Work; (b) Effect of Individuality upon Worker.

CHAPTER III

FUNCTIONALIZATION       

Definition of Functionalization — Psychological Use of Functionalization — Functionalization in Traditional Management — Functionalization Under Transitory Management — Functionalization Under Scientific Management — Separating the Planning From the Performing — Functionalized Foremanship — The Function of Order of Work and Route Clerk — The Function of Instruction Card Clerk — The Function of Time and Cost Clerk — The Function of Disciplinarian — The Function of Gang Boss — The Function of Speed Boss — The Function of Repair Boss — The Function of Inspector — Functionalizing the Worker — Functionalizing the Work Itself — Summary: (a) Effect of Functionalization upon the Work; (b) Effect of Functionalization upon the Worker.

CHAPTER IV

MEASUREMENT       

Definition of Measurement — Importance of Measurement in Psychology — Relation of Measurement in Psychology to Measurement in Management — Importance of Measurement in Management — Measurement in Traditional Management — Measurement in Transitory Management — Measurement in Scientific Management — Qualifications of the Observer — Methods of Observation — Definitions of Motion Study and Time Study — Methods of Motion Study and Time Study — Summary: (a) Effect of Measurement on the Work; (b) Effect of Measurement on the Worker; (c) Future Results to be Expected; (d) First Step Toward Obtaining These Results.

CHAPTER V

ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS      

Definition of Analysis — Definition of Synthesis — Use of Analysis and Synthesis by Psychology — Importance of Analysis and Synthesis in Management — Place in Traditional Management — Place in Transitory Management — Place in Scientific Management — The Work of the Analyst — Determining Factor in Amount of Analysis — Field of Psychology in Analysis — Qualifications of an Analyst — Worker's Interest in Analysis — The Work of the Synthesist — Results of Synthesist's Work — The Task — Discussion of the Name "Task" — Definition of "Task" in Scientific Management — Field of Application of the Task Idea — Qualifications of the Synthesist — Summary: (a) Effect of Analysis and Synthesis on the Work; (b) Effect of Analysis and Synthesis on the Worker.

CHAPTER VI

STANDARDIZATION      

Definition of Standardization — Relation of the Standard to the Task and the Incentive — Relation of the Standard to Psychology — Purpose of Standardization — Standardization Under Traditional Management — Standardization Under Transitory Management — Value of Systems — Standardization Under Scientific Management — Relation of Standard to Measurement — Scope of Standardization Under Scientific Management — Permanence of Results — Needs of Standardization Likened to Needs in Field of Spelling — Standard Nomenclature — Advantages of Mnemonic Symbols — Standard Phraseology — The Standard Man — Standard Means of Conveying Information — Definition of the Instruction Card — Detailed Description of the Instruction Card — Value of Standard Surroundings — Necessity for Proper Placing of the Worker — Standard Equipment — Standard Tools and Devices — Standard Clothing — Standard Methods — Rest from Fatigue — Standardization of Work with Animals — Standard Quality — Standard "Method of Attack" — Summary: (a) Effect of Standardization on the Work; (b) Effect of Standardization on the Worker; (c) Progress of Standardization Assured.

CHAPTER VII

RECORDS AND PROGRAMMES      

Definition of Record — Records Under Traditional Management — Records Under Transitory Management — Records Under Scientific Management — Criterion of Records — Records of Work and Workers — Records of Initiative — Records of Good Behavior — Records of Achievement — Records of "Exceptions" — Posting of Records — Summary of Results of Records to Work and Worker — Definition of Programme — Programmes Under Traditional Management — Programmes Under Transitory Management — Programmes Under Scientific Management — Programmes and Routing — Possibility of Prophecy Under Scientific Management — Summary of Results of Programmes to Work and Worker — Relation Between Records and Programmes — Types of Records and Programmes — Interrelation of Types — Illustrations of Complexity of Relations — Possibilities of Eliminating Waste — Derivation of the Programme — Summary: (a) Effect of Relations Between Records and Programmes on the Work; (b) Effect on the Worker.

CHAPTER VIII

TEACHING      

Definition of Teaching — Teaching Under Traditional Management — Faults Due to Lack of Standards — Teaching Under Transitory Management — Teaching Under Scientific Management — Importance of Teaching — Conforming of Teaching to Psychological Laws — Conservation of Valuable Elements of Traditional and Transitory Management — Scope of Teaching — Source of Teaching — Methods of Teaching — Instruction Cards as Teachers — Systems as Teachers — Drawings, Charts, Plans and Photographs — Functional Foremen as Teachers — Object Lessons as Teachers — Training the Senses — Forming Good Habits — Importance of Teaching Right Motions First — Stimulating Attention — Forming Associations — Educating the Memory — Cultivating the Imagination — Developing the Judgment — Utilizing Suggestion — Utilizing Native Reactions — Developing the Will — Adaptability of Teaching — Provision of Places for Teaching — Measurement of Teaching — Relation of Teaching to Academic Training and Vocational Guidance — Summary: (a) Result of Teaching in the Work; (b) Result of Teaching to the Worker; (c) Results to be Expected in the Future.

CHAPTER IX

INCENTIVES      

Definition of Incentive — Importance of Incentives — Direct and Indirect Incentives — Definition of Reward — Definition of Punishment — Nature of Direct Incentives — The Reward Under Traditional Management — The Punishment Under Traditional Management — The Direct Incentive Under Traditional Management — Incentives Under Transitory Management — Rewards Under Scientific Management — Promotion and Pay — Relation of Wages and Bonus — Day Work — Piece Work — Task Wage — Gain Sharing — Premium Plan — Profit Sharing — Differential Rate Piece — Task Work with a Bonus — Differential Bonus — Three Rate — Three Rate with Increased Rate — Other Rewards — Negative and Positive Punishments — Fines and Their Disposal — Assignment to Less Pleasant Work — Discharge and Its Elimination — Use of Direct Incentives — Summary: (a) Effect of Incentives upon the Work; (b) Effect of Incentives upon the Worker.

CHAPTER X      

WELFARE      

Definition of Welfare — "Welfare" and "Welfare Work" — Welfare Under Traditional Management — Welfare Work Under Traditional Management — Welfare Under Transitory Management — Welfare Work Under Transitory Management — Welfare Under Scientific Management — Physical Improvement — Mental Development — Moral Development — Interrelation of Physical, Mental and Moral Development — Welfare Work Under Scientific Management — Summary: (a) Result of Welfare to the Work; (b) Result of Welfare to the Worker.

INDEX

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